High-stake Test Preparation Courses: Washback in Accountability Contexts
Sima Sadeghi

Giventhe increasing public demands for preparation courses, the purpose of this study was to discover how high-stakes testing influenced preparation courses. To achieve this end, concepts from Structuration Theory and Washback Hypothesis were employed. The study was conducted with four instructors teaching at the preparation courses for TOEFL and IELTS in Iran. An interpretive ethnographic case study was conducted through observation and field notes to gather data about how high-stakes testing affected teachers' curriculum and methodology. In order to keep observation focused and directed, University of Cambridge Observation Scheme (UCOS) was also used. The scheme was utilized to solely focus on the extent to which the course was test-oriented. The results indicated that teachers were constantly encountered with challenging questions which led to variations in their responses to tests' pressures.

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